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onsdag 30 april 2014

Chemistry: Solubility

The other day, i made the new part of the Kitchen chemistry course, And this time the theme was solubility and uses. Dr Ashworth described that The liquid we dissolve something in is called a solvent and the thing that is being dissolved is known as a solute. So we made lots of cool experiments with lovents and solubility. We noticed that water and oil does not (of course.) go together. but drops of iodine tincture will most certainly be more soluble in oil than in water!

"If we have a liquid that cannot be seen through it is no longer a solution. A liquid such as milk appears white because of lots of tiny drops of fat. These fat droplets prevent light from getting through the liquid. This sort of liquid is known as an emulsion as one liquid (in this case water) is surrounding tiny drops of another liquid. This arrangement may also be familiar in emulsion paint." Dr Ashworth,

Because oil and fats are lighter than water, when you for example mix salad dressings, they will go on top of the water. Therefore, they are called surfactants. Because they are surface active!

Here´s a comment from when i made the course:

"When i dipped my finger in the jar with water and oil, separated, my finger got a layer of oil, and thus the water didnt touch it. when we took water, oil and washing liquid, we shook it and after about three minute it got separated, and the water was all murky and unclear. without the washin liquid, the water was clear!"

A chemical change is something that cannot be turned back into its original state when, cooked, for example. An egg that is cooked, or a loaf of bread baked in a hot oven is two examples on this.
A physical change is something that can be turned back into a preevious state, such as, for example water that is frozen turns into ice, and then it melts into water and so on. somewhere in between it is also turned into steam, the gas form of water.
We made a chromatogram with colors and blotting paper. Below is our comment on that.
"We didnt really have blotting paper (we didnt know where to find it, and what it really is!), but in the end, we got the idea of how it worked with papertowels and such! we noticed the blue shade of the red color stayed in the bottom, while the red shade went up. Like if the red colour is more water soluble than the blue one!"

Chromatography is a standard procedure for separating and examining mixtures. There are many variations but they all rely on the fact that molecules have different interactions with one substance than with another. We saw that the iodine prefers to dissolve in oil rather than water: it is more soluble in oil than in water. In our chromatography experiment the coloured molecules that are more soluble in water are swept along easily and travel a long way. On the other hand, those that are less soluble tend to interact more with the paper and travel more slowly. <-- chromatography="" explanation="" on="" p="" thats="" the="">
I hope you got all that, and that you found it interesting and entertaining to read! /Lukas

fredag 25 april 2014

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean Jacques Rosseau was a 18th century philosopher and aouthor. 
Born 1712 in switzerland, geneva, His mother died after his birth. Ten years later his father leaves him to run away from jail, due to an illegal duel. He was then raised by his aunt and uncle. he became the apprentice of an engraver, but ran away three years later. then he met madame Louise de Warens, who became his secret lover. in 1742 Jean Jacques went to paris where he met Denis Diderot, and helped him to complete Diderots Encyklopedia. Rosseau was very creative and found many ways to explain his philosophy. He believed that humans are inherently good, But are corrupted by society and that all people must enter into a social contract that requires people to recognize a collective "good will" which represents the common good or public interest. all citizens should participate and should be committed to the good of all, even if it is not in their personal best interest. He believed that living for the common good promotes liberty and equality.
 Rosseau was a big supporter of educations. He said: We are born weak, we need strength,helpless we need aid; foolish we need reason.

He also claimed: Man is born free, everywhere he is in chains. His novel Emelie emphasizes how allowing free expression and a focus on the environment instead of repressing curiosity will produce a well-balanced, freethinking child. He also believed that women needed to be educated as well as men, but in different directions.emphasizes how allowing free expression and a focus on the environment instead of repressing curiosity will produce a well-balanced, freethinking child. He also believed that women needed to be educated as well as men, but in different directions. He also believed that children should be educated in what he or she is interested in.

After A life of moving around from place to place (not everyone supported his thoughts and ideas!), he died in 1778 from a brain bleeding. 

torsdag 24 april 2014


For at least 2000 years, humans have forced fellow humans to work for them, against their will. It might have started when a tribe defeated another tribe some thousand years ago, and took the losers as workers for their fields. Around 16th century, european travelers visited places such as africa, and enslaved africans to work on their plant ages and fields. They shipped slaves over the atlantic ocean in ruthless conditions, to sell them on auctions as workers.

The trade triangle.

Ships travel from europe towards africas west coast, were they buy slaves. they are packed into massive slave ships in chains, and many of them die of illness and inhuman conditions. The voyage over the atlantic, known as the middle passage takes about 6 to 8 weeks. In america, the surviving slaves are unloaded and sold to work on great plantages. The ships then returned to europe with slave-labour goods such as sugar, coffee, wheat and cotton. The trade triangle is complete.

The trade triangle 
Source: international slavery museum (ISM)

Life on board slave ships

Slave ships spent months traveling the atlantic, buying and selling their goods. The slaves were often poor in health, due to the mental and physical abuses they suffered. they were taken aboard, stripped naked and examined from head to toe by a surgeon or captain. Conditions were awful, as slaves were packed in under deck, legs shackled in heavy irons. They were packed so close, they had to either crouch or lie down. Women and children were kept in separate storages, sometimes on deck, for a limited freedom. But this exposed them to physical and sexual abuse by the crew. The air under deck was hot and thin. the heat was oppressive, and slaves often suffered seasickness. In good weather, slaves were brought on deck, forced to excersice. The food was often rotten, and water was limited. those who resisted to eat were force fed. Those who died were hauled overboard.

Arriving in america

After a long journey with many deaths and diseases, the ships stopped in america. Slaved were washed, shaved and rubbed with palm oil to disguise the sores from the travel. The captains usually sold their cargo to plantations or to sellers, who sold them on auctions. When buyers received their slaves, they wanted to sever all bonds the slaves had before, by forcing them to adapt new working and living skills, or by learning a new language. For africans, who were weak from the long and painful travel, the brutality of this process was overwhelming. many committed suicide. The rest found ways to live which still preserved their dignity.

The american Civil war was about North and south america fighting about wether stopping slavery or not, years 1861-65


Slavery today:

In poor countries, Slavery is still common. In India, A million Children are working
in great Carpetworks to produce thousands of Cheap carpets. Millions of the poor
people in india are also working in rice fields, Brick kilns and such. In america, thousands
of women are trafficked to work in sex industries. In russia you will find millions of slaves.
Many children are enslaved in prostitution. In chinese coal mines, about 150 million illegal
immigrants are working.

Slavery in movies and books:
There have been made movies and books about slavery.
A recent movie named Django Unchained, Written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, is a genre-movie about a Bounty hunting slave called Django.
More classic stories are: North and south,  A tv-series about the civil war.
Uncle toms cabin, about a freed slave, by Harriett Beecher Stowe
The companion of Huckleberry finn (in the book with the same name, By Mark Twain), Jim, a runaway slave.
Source: wikipedia

By Lukas Lantz

tisdag 22 april 2014

Min YouTubekanal!

Nu har jag fixat en egen YouTubekanal! 

Jag lägger upp Humorklipp och har gjort en del roliga filmer, bland annat
 en helt knäpp video där jag använder diskmedel som tandkräm! Prenumerera 
Gärna på den!



I am following an internet course called kitchen chemistry, and in this weeks
experiments i learned about different substances and the fundamental states of matter,
Gas, Solid, Liquid and Plasma. It was fun and interesting, and we made three really
funny experiments, one with a spoon and a candle, and one with vinegar
and bicarbonate! I noticed that when you hold a burning matchstick over
the vinegar and bicarbonate, it will be extinguished. Thats because the oxygen is
replaced with Co2, Carbon dioxide, wich doesn't burn. And the third one was cool too,
i lit a candle, and after it had burnt for a while, i extinguished it, and then i could light
it with a match from two centimeters distance! Thats because the wax in the candle creates
a flammable gas.

Heres a link to the course:
Have fun!
 Lighting a candle
 Bicarbonate and vinegar, NaHCO3 and  CH3COOH

And the match goes out